Peking University, China
Xinjun Jiang is a PhD candidate in Nursing School, Peking University. Her research area is about the diabetes self-management education for persons with diabetes. Now she is conducting a culturally sensitive diabetes education program in China, with the purpose of helping persons with diabetes change behaviour and keep desirable results in blood glucose levels.
Purpose: Self-efficacy plays a central role in individuals’ behaviour change. Previous reviews of diabetes education conducted among participants with diabetes have shown the effectiveness of diabetes education and some studies indicated that an educational intervention supported with theory showed desirable results in blood glucose levels. However, the studies did not analyse the components of the intervention. And no studies have examined the effectiveness and characteristics of a diabetes educational intervention based on a theory. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of diabetes self-efficacy educational interventions in patients with diabetes and to determine the effective components of the interventions. Methods: Six databases were systematically searched for studies on the metabolic controls, diabetes self-efficacy, behaviour, knowledge, psychological indicators and quality of life of diabetes self-efficacy educational interventions for patients with diabetes. Sixteen studies published between 2006 and 2017 met the inclusion criteria. Results: Glycosylated haemoglobin A1C, fasting blood glucose, diabetes self-efficacy, behaviour and knowledge were identified as positive results in most studies. Only five studies used the complete four sources of information, and eight studies assessed both the self-efficacy and behaviour of participants based on self-efficacy theory. Performance accomplishments, vicarious experience and verbal persuasion were predominantly employed. Such strategies as goal setting, practicing self-management skills, participants’ return-demonstration, behaviour recording, peer modelling, verbal persuasion by nurses and face to face delivery were preferred in the included studies. Conclusions: Individuals with diabetes are likely to benefit from diabetes self-efficacy educational interventions. The four sources of information and outcome assessments based on self-efficacy theory were insufficient in most studies. Future work is required to develop an effective diabetes self-efficacy educational intervention and further determine the effects.